The Caregiver's Journey

Spasticity

An injury to the brain can cause an abnormal increase in muscle tone called spasticity. A spastic muscle does not easily relax the way a normal muscle does.

This effect is most common with a severe and/or penetrating brain injury.

Regular stretching, splints to keep limbs in proper position, and medications are common treatments.

Severe spasticity can be painful so pain management may be in order.

What you might see:

  • Involuntary muscle tightness and stiffness 
  • Muscle contractions 
  • Decreased range of movement and abnormal posture

How you can help:

  • The physical therapist will develop a stretching program for your family member. Ask the physical therapist to teach you this program.
  • Post diagrams of the stretches. Help your family member do the recommended stretches.
  • If splints are used, learn how to apply them. Find out how long they are to be worn each day.
  • Monitor your family member’s skin for pressure points from the splints. Alert nurses to areas of redness and breakdown.
  • Tell the healthcare team if the spasticity gets worse. This could be a sign of an underlying problem.
  • If spasticity is so severe that it interferes with comfort, positioning, and general functioning, ask the doctor about treatment options. These include implanting a muscle relaxant pump.